HATE FOUNDS AND EMPIRE 179 II India, is quiet,, orderly, and 'civilized.5 It is well-policed ; the streets are brightly lit; a woman can wander through it alone at all hours of the night and day without running any serious danger of being molested. Most important of all, the communal question is comparatively quiescent. At a time when many other cities have been drei*ched in the blood of Hindus and Muslims, Bombay has goixe quietly about its business. And this is Bombay's record from February 1929 to April 1938 —the last years for which statistics are available. In 1929 there were two communal riots. In the first 149 were killed, 739 seriously injured, and it lasted for 36 days* lu the second 35 were killed, 109 were injured, and it lasted for 22 days. In 1930 there were two riots, and in 1932 another two. They were apparently of similar proportions, but the only details avail- able are for the second 1932 riot, in which 217 were killed, and 2,713 seriously injured. This lasted for 49 days. There were riots in 1933, 1934, and 1935, but they were on a smaller scale. la the chief 1930 riot 94 were killed, and 632 serioubly injured. This raged for 65 days. 1937 was comparatively quiet; in the chief riot only 11 were killed, and 85 seriously injured, and it was over in a mere 3 weeks. But in 1938, in one riot alone, which lasted only two and a half hours, 12 were killed and over 100 injured.1 Since then the situation has steadily deteriorated. And Bombay, remember, is one of the quieter parts of India, as far as eomnoanxal- ism is concerned. "Placed side by side with the frantic efforts made by Mr. Gandhi to bring about Hindu-Moslem unity, the record of Hindu-Moslem relationship from 1920 to 1940 makes most painful and heart- rending reading. It is a recotd of twenty years of civil war, inter- rupted by brief internals of armed peace. 2 This fact—of such vital importance to the world—is con- 's * These statistics" are taken from Thoughts on Pakistan, by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar (Thaeker & Co., Bombay). This book* to which I am much indebted, is essential for any student of Pakistan, or, indeed, of modern India. * Ibid., p. 180.